Does a VLC media player affect laptop speakers?

Yes, using VLC player can damage/destroy your normal laptop speakers. Shocking isn't it.
VLC player has the capability of amplifying the sound level twice the normal sound level other media players can produce. If you play your media files in VLC player at maximum volume level of 200% then there is a possibility that your laptop speakers may not handle the sound amplification produced by VLC media player. This may result in damage to laptop speakers and distortion in sound. Laptop speakers, having less wattage, are made to produce normal sound level. You should play your media files in VLC player at an average sound level to avoid damage to your Laptop speakers.

Note: Laptop speakers damaged by VLC media player don't come under the manufacture warranty list. It doesn't have to take anything with your laptop's warranty but it'll void only your speakers warranty.
See this link for further information.

Is there any solution?

Don't worry , there is a solution to solve this problem. Try to play a video with less than 100% volume whenever possible.

Also try to use the equalizer in the VLC media player.

Don't know how to turn on equalizer click here.